Infrastructure monitoring in communications-constrained areas

May 2nd, 2018Undergraduate Student Life

By René Andrés García Franceschini ’19 During one of the first weeks of the fall semester of my junior year, I had a call with Andrew Weinert, a researcher at the Lincoln Laboratory, to try to narrow down what my SuperUROP project would be. Weinert works on the use of small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUASs) to gather information after emergency situations. Emergency situations were in no short supply those days: Hurricanes Harvey and Irma had come and gone, and Hurricane Maria had just hit Dominica. Knowing that Maria was a day away from devastating my home in Puerto Rico, Weinert suggested that I take this experience as motivation for improving emergency response in these devastated islands. Having personally been affected by the collapse of the communications infrastructure back home (I did not hear from my family for almost a week), I saw the importance of having effective emergency response in communications-constrained areas. I thus decided to work with Professor Saurabh Amin on the use of sUASs for infrastructure monitoring in communications-constrained or -restricted areas, especially after emergency situations. Currently, sUASs are becoming more common in infrastructure inspections because of their increased levels of access and safety, compared to a human inspector. sUASs are currently being developed so that they can be controlled through GPS and 4G LTE signal, which opens the door to the possibility of automatically routed teams of drones carrying out tasks. However, because 4G LTE coverage can be variable after emergencies, my work tried to figure out [...]

By René Andrés García Franceschini ’19

During one of the first weeks of the fall semester of my junior year, I had a call with Andrew Weinert, a researcher at the Lincoln Laboratory, to try to narrow down what my SuperUROP project would be. Weinert works on the use of small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUASs) to gather information after emergency situations. Emergency situations were in no short supply those days: Hurricanes Harvey and Irma had come and gone, and Hurricane Maria had just hit Dominica.

Knowing that Maria was a day away from devastating my home in Puerto Rico, Weinert suggested that I take this experience as motivation for improving emergency response in these devastated islands. Having personally been affected by the collapse of the communications infrastructure back home (I did not hear from my family for almost a week), I saw the importance of having effective emergency response in communications-constrained areas.

I thus decided to work with Professor Saurabh Amin on the use of sUASs for infrastructure monitoring in communications-constrained or -restricted areas, especially after emergency situations. Currently, sUASs are becoming more common in infrastructure inspections because of their increased levels of access and safety, compared to a human inspector. sUASs are currently being developed so that they can be controlled through GPS and 4G LTE signal, which opens the door to the possibility of automatically routed teams of drones carrying out tasks. However, because 4G LTE coverage can be variable after emergencies, my work tried to figure out better ways to route sUASs while accounting for this uncertainty.

To achieve this goal, I used an approach that combines tools for vehicle routing and geo-statistics. First, I adapted algorithms used for routing teams of agents that need to visit as many points of interest as possible to my scenario. Second, I introduced a kriging step, which attempts to predict the communications signal strength of unobserved locations based on all the locations that have been observed. This allowed the sUASs to simultaneously inspect nodes and learn about the communications-space of the map. In the end, this resulted in improved performance in terms of how many points of interest are inspected, how much computational time is required to make good solutions, and how many sUASs make it back to home base before time runs out.

Of course, conducting research is hardly meaningful if you cannot convey the information to others. Thankfully, the second half of SuperUROP is learning about different genres and means of communicating your work. Through SuperUROP, I got to engage with hundreds of other students carrying out research in fields that are opposite to my own, and I got to see what it was like to communicate research across academic fields. I also had the opportunity to network with amazing professors and industry leaders that are on the cutting edge of scientific research. And all of this while making $25 an hour.

Presenting my research during a SuperUROP poster session

Towards the end of the program, I was invited to record a short video about my experience. In the video, the interviewer asked me if I was doing this project because of Hurricane Maria. The reality was that I had discussed this project with Saurabh in May 2017, months before Maria even existed. However, through ridiculous serendipity my project evolved into the sole topic that I wanted to work on this year. In my work with Saurabh, I was able take a problem with real-world implications, model it, and use my Course 1 skillset to chip just the tiniest bit of it.

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There’s a 30% Chance that it’s Already Raining: Inside a CEE Capstone Project

May 1st, 2018Undergraduate Student Life

By Rachel Galowich ’18 and Jill Dressler ’18 Your two favorite blogging seniors are back! In our last post, Jill gave a great introduction into the background and significance of our project. With our next two posts, we hope to dive a little deeper into the computer science going on behind the scenes. Jill and I are working with the same data set (a refresher: MassDOT traffic camera images, and the labels applied to each image by Google Cloud Vision API), but focusing on different objectives. My goal is to be able to predict the probability of future events given historical data. My first order of business was to sort through the thousands of labels Google produced. Most labels can be applied to any image, so they don’t provide new or significant information that can help MassDOT respond to an accident - “road”, “asphalt”, and “lane” are a few examples. There are a series of labels that appear to be random, and in some cases, are pretty comical, like “Arctic Monkeys” and “bodybuilding.” And finally, buried within the sea of all of these unhelpful labels, are the 43 that I am actually working with. They might indicate a reason to be concerned for driver safety (i.e. an event that might lead to an accident), the presence of an accident, or emergency response to an accident. To test whether the events represented by image labels can be predicted, we can introduce a lag in the data, or “shift” the data back [...]

By Rachel Galowich ’18 and Jill Dressler ’18

Your two favorite blogging seniors are back!

In our last post, Jill gave a great introduction into the background and significance of our project. With our next two posts, we hope to dive a little deeper into the computer science going on behind the scenes. Jill and I are working with the same data set (a refresher: MassDOT traffic camera images, and the labels applied to each image by Google Cloud Vision API), but focusing on different objectives. My goal is to be able to predict the probability of future events given historical data.

My first order of business was to sort through the thousands of labels Google produced. Most labels can be applied to any image, so they don’t provide new or significant information that can help MassDOT respond to an accident – “road”, “asphalt”, and “lane” are a few examples. There are a series of labels that appear to be random, and in some cases, are pretty comical, like “Arctic Monkeys” and “bodybuilding.” And finally, buried within the sea of all of these unhelpful labels, are the 43 that I am actually working with. They might indicate a reason to be concerned for driver safety (i.e. an event that might lead to an accident), the presence of an accident, or emergency response to an accident.

To test whether the events represented by image labels can be predicted, we can introduce a lag in the data, or “shift” the data back in time. Our data set includes images taken every three minutes, so shifting the data 20 times represents one hour of total lag. I have been using two tools to show the relationship between the data and its lag terms: covariance and partial-autocorrelation plots. Covariance plots reveal the labels that are strongly correlated with their lag terms, and partial-autocorrelation plots can show how the relationship changes with the number of lags. From this, I can learn what labels might be more easily predictable, and how far in the future they can be reasonably predicted.

The next step is to build a statistical model that can more concretely prove the possibility for prediction. I have been using logistic regression, which gives the conditional probability that an event will occur. In this case, the output is a binary variable, which takes the value of one if a label is applied to an image, and zero if it is not. The input is the series of lagged data for a label. I am still working towards refining this model, but am making steady guidance with Jeff’s guidance (and Jill’s support, of course). The eventual hope for this part of the project is to use the logistic regression model and another machine learning technique, hidden markov models, to infer the probability that one event, represented by a label (i.e. snowing outside → “snow”), might transition to another event (“snow” → “accident”).

Hope you enjoyed reading this post, and that Jill can live up to my blogging-prowess next week! Cheers until the semester finale!

Rachel Galowich ’18 and Jill Dressler ’18 are working together on a Senior Capstone project with Professor Saraubh Amin and Doctoral Candidate Jeffrey Liu.

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Abroad in Israel: Halfway done

April 30th, 2018Undergraduate Student Life

By Amy Vogel ’20 I am about to start the 8th week of my internship... it is crazy to think that my time at the Technion is more than halfway over! But on the other hand, I feel like I have already accomplished a lot. Between the two of us, Omar and I have nearly finished laying the groundwork for his macroscopic traffic simulation model. The model now has the "infrastructure" to display and calculate the changes in traffic flow and density, given any road network input. It took many different components -- the main MATLAB script, helper functions, and separate scripts -- just to convert data from one format to another - and not to mention weeks of debugging. Although the main project is about HOT lanes, up until now we have only been laying the groundwork for the model, so HOT lanes have not been a big factor in that. I think that this week we will start to use our highway model with the HOT lanes, so I am really excited to see how that goes. After many long days at the office, I love to take advantage of my weekends here. Recently in Israel, there have been lots of important holidays, and because I am Jewish, I really enjoy being a part of those holidays here. On Holocaust Remembrance Day, I was able to go to Tel Aviv and witness a few Holocaust survivors give testimonies of their experience to a large crowd of mostly millennial, [...]

By Amy Vogel ’20

I am about to start the 8th week of my internship… it is crazy to think that my time at the Technion is more than halfway over! But on the other hand, I feel like I have already accomplished a lot.

Between the two of us, Omar and I have nearly finished laying the groundwork for his macroscopic traffic simulation model. The model now has the “infrastructure” to display and calculate the changes in traffic flow and density, given any road network input. It took many different components — the main MATLAB script, helper functions, and separate scripts — just to convert data from one format to another – and not to mention weeks of debugging.

Although the main project is about HOT lanes, up until now we have only been laying the groundwork for the model, so HOT lanes have not been a big factor in that. I think that this week we will start to use our highway model with the HOT lanes, so I am really excited to see how that goes.

After many long days at the office, I love to take advantage of my weekends here. Recently in Israel, there have been lots of important holidays, and because I am Jewish, I really enjoy being a part of those holidays here.

On Holocaust Remembrance Day, I was able to go to Tel Aviv and witness a few Holocaust survivors give testimonies of their experience to a large crowd of mostly millennial, English-speaking immigrants to Israel. And 8 days later, the mood in Israel completely turned around as parties broke out in the streets for Israeli Independence Day (the 70th anniversary). I have family in various parts of the country, so it has been nice to travel to them and spend time in difference cities, as well.

Yom Ha’atzmaut (Independence Day) in Tel Aviv

In Israel the work week starts on Sundays, so every Sunday morning I will usually sit in the coffee shop in my department’s building and enjoy a nice cappuccino with the other students in my lab, as we all catch up on how our weekends were. I look forward to my next coffee with them, and I also look forward to all of the remaining holidays and weekends coming up before it’s time for me to go home.

Amy Vogel ’20 is studying abroad in Israel at Technion this semester, where she is working alongside Tomer Toledo, PhD ’03.

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Professor Yossi Sheffi publishes book on Environmental Sustainability in Business

April 17th, 20182018 News in Brief

Yossi Sheffi, Elisha Gray II Professor of Engineering Systems and CEE, and Director of the Center for Transportation and Logistics, recently published a new book entitled “Balancing Green: When to Embrace Sustainability in Business and When Not To.” MIT News featured the book; the article describes case studies of large companies grappling with their impact on the environment and how Sheffi suggests companies pursue sustainability measures in their business models. Read more on MIT News and Sheffi’s LinkedIn post.

Yossi Sheffi, Elisha Gray II Professor of Engineering Systems and CEE, and Director of the Center for Transportation and Logistics, recently published a new book entitled “Balancing Green: When to Embrace Sustainability in Business and When Not To.” MIT News featured the book; the article describes case studies of large companies grappling with their impact on the environment and how Sheffi suggests companies pursue sustainability measures in their business models. Read more on MIT News and Sheffi’s LinkedIn post.

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Review from Professor Markus Buehler featured on the cover of Nature Reviews: Materials

April 16th, 20182018 News in Brief

A review from Professor Markus Buehler, former postdoc Shengjie Ling and David Kaplan of Tufts University was featured on the cover of the April edition of Nature Reviews: Materials. The paper, entitled “Nanofibrils in nature and materials engineering,” summarizes the hierarchical design strategies of cellulose, silk and chitin, focusing on nanoconfinement, fibrillar orientation and alignment in 2D and 3D structures. See the cover here.

A review from Professor Markus Buehler, former postdoc Shengjie Ling and David Kaplan of Tufts University was featured on the cover of the April edition of Nature Reviews: Materials. The paper, entitled “Nanofibrils in nature and materials engineering,” summarizes the hierarchical design strategies of cellulose, silk and chitin, focusing on nanoconfinement, fibrillar orientation and alignment in 2D and 3D structures. See the cover here.

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Projects from Professor Jesse Kroll and Professor Colette Heald receive funding from the Tata Center

April 14th, 20182018 News in Brief

Associate Professor Jesse Kroll and Professor Colette Heald each received funding from the MIT Tata Center for Technology and Design for two new research projects that can make an impact on the developing world. Kroll received funding for a project on "Modeling and Deployment Strategies for Low-Cost Air Quality Sensors in Urban India," which will be completed in collaboration with Professor David Hsu of the Department of Urban Studies and Planning and Professor Youssef Marzouk of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Heald’s project is on "Understanding the Sources Contributing to the Air Pollution Crisis in India." See all of the projects on MIT News.

Associate Professor Jesse Kroll and Professor Colette Heald each received funding from the MIT Tata Center for Technology and Design for two new research projects that can make an impact on the developing world. Kroll received funding for a project on “Modeling and Deployment Strategies for Low-Cost Air Quality Sensors in Urban India,” which will be completed in collaboration with Professor David Hsu of the Department of Urban Studies and Planning and Professor Youssef Marzouk of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Heald’s project is on “Understanding the Sources Contributing to the Air Pollution Crisis in India.” See all of the projects on MIT News.

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